Some features of hardiness in patients with depressive disorders

  • O. Belov National Pirogov Memorial Medical University
Keywords: depressive disorders; hardiness; involvement; control; risk acceptance.


The features of hardiness of 245 patients with depressive disorders were studied using the S. Maddi test. Low rates of hardiness and its components - involvement, control and risk acceptance, in patients with depressive disorders. There is a tendency to decrease the indicators of hardiness and its components with age: commitment of 24.2±7.0 points in the younger age group, 20.8±7.2 points in the middle age group, and 13.5±8.2 points in the older age group; control – respectively 22.3±4.9 points, 20.9±6.0 points and 16.0±7.2 points; challenge – 10.4±3.3 points, 9.3±3.7 points and 6.9±4.0 points, respectively; integrated indicator of hardiness – 56.9±13.0 points, 51.0±14.8 points and 36.4±18.2 points, respectively. In men, significantly lower than in women were indicators of commitment (18.6±8.2 points vs 21.7±8.3 points, p<0.05), control (18.6±6.9 points vs 21,6±5.7 points, p<0.01), challenge (8.5±3.9 points vs 9.7±3.7 points, p<0.05), and integrated hardiness index (45.7±17.4 points vs 52.9±15.8 points, p<0.01). Significant (p<0.01) inverse correlations of indicators of severity of psychopathological symptoms with indicators of commitment, control, challenge and hardiness: somatization (rS=-0.460, rS=-0.456, rS=-0.377 and rS=-0.500, respectively), obsessive-compulsive symptoms (rS=-0.422, rS=-0.429, rS=-0.337 and rS=-0.457, respectively), interpersonal sensitivity (rS=-0.466, rS=-0.466, rS=-0.376 and rS=-0.506, respectively), depression (rS=-0.694, rS=-0.690, rS=-0.516 and rS=-0.662, respectively), anxiety (rS=-0.463, rS=-0.465, rS=-0.375 and rS=-0.503, respectively), hostility (rS=-0.364, rS=-0.355, rS=-0.376 and rS=-0.328, respectively), phobic anxiety (rS=-0.447, rS=-0.449, rS=-0.360 and rS=-0.485, respectively), paranoid symptoms (rS=-0.436 , rS=-0.431, rS=-0.355 and rS=-0.469, respectively), psychoticism (rS=-0.250, rS=-0.227, rS=-0.176 and rS=-0.247, respectively).


1. Park L.T., Zarate C.A.J. (2019). Depression in the Primary Care Setting. Reply. N Engl J Med, vol. 380(23), pp. 2279-2280.
2. Hockenberry J.M., Joski P., Yarbrough C., Druss B.G. (2019). Trends in treatment and spending for patients receiving outpatient treatment of depression in the United States, 1998-2015. JAMA Psychiatry. vol. 76, pp. 810–817.
3. Christensen M.C., Wong C.M.J., Baune B.T. (2020). Symptoms of Major Depressive Disorder and Their Impact on Psychosocial Functioning in the Different Phases of the Disease: Do the Perspectives of Patients and Healthcare Providers Differ?. Front Psychiatry, vol. 11, pp. 280.
4. Fiskin G., Kaydirak M.M., Oskay U.Y. (2017). Psychosocial Adaptation and Depressive Manifestations in High-Risk Pregnant Women: Implications for Clinical Practice. Worldviews Evid Based Nurs., vol. 14(1), pp. 55-64.
5. Gvozdetsky A.N., Petrova N.N., Akulin I.M. (2019). Vliyanie kognitivnyh narushenij pri rekurrentnoj depressii na socialnoe funkcionirovanie bolnyh v remissii [The influence of cognitive impairments in recurrent depression on the social functioning of patients in remission]. Socialnaya i klinicheskaya psihiatriya - Social and Clinical Psychiatry, vol. 29, suppl. 1, pp. 5-9. [in Russian].
6. Gerasimenko L.O., Skrypnikov A.M., Isakov R.I. (2019). Diagnostika psihosocialnoi dezadaptacii u zhinok z depresyvnymy rozladamy [Diagnostic of psychosocial maladaptation in women with depressive disorders]. Svit medicine and biologii – World of Medicine and Biology, vol. 1(67), pp. 34-38. [in Ukrainian].
7. Blackburn T.P. (2019). Depressive disorders: Treatment failures and poor prognosis over the last 50 years. Pharmacol Res Perspect, vol. 7(3), pp. e00472.
8. Feligreras-Alcalá D., Frías-Osuna A., del-Pino-Casado R. (2020). Personal and Family Resources Related to Depressive and Anxiety Symptoms in Women during Puerperium. Int J Environ Res Public Health, vol. 17(14), pp. 5230. doi: 10.3390 / ijerph17145230.
9. Yan L., Gan Y., Ding X., Wu J., Duan H. (2021). The relationship between perceived stress and emotional distress during the COVID-19 outbreak: Effects of boredom proneness and coping style. J Anxiety Disord., vol. 77, p. 102328.
10. McLoughlin E., Fletcher D., Slavich G.M., Arnold R., Moore L.J. (2021). Cumulative lifetime stress exposure, depression, anxiety, and well-being in elite athletes: A mixed-method study. Psychol Sport Exerc., vol. 52, pp. 823.
11. Markova M., Rezunenko O., Kozhyna H. (2017). Contents and efficiency measures of psychoeducation in rehabilitation system of patients with bipolar affective disorder. Journal of Education, Health and Sport Sciences, vol. 7, pp. 711–715.
12. Wiles N., Taylor A., Turner N. [et al.] (2018). Management of treatment-resistant depression in primary care: a mixed-methods study. British Journal of General Practice, vol. 68(675), p. e673–e681.
13. Maddi S. (2013). Hardiness: Turning Stressful Circumstances into Resilient Growth. New York: Springer, 2013. 220 p.
14. Leontyev D.A., Rasskazova E.I. Test zhiznestojkosti: metodicheskoe rukovodstvo [Test of hardiness: methodological guidance]. Moscow; 2006. 34 p. [in Russian].
How to Cite
Belov, O. (2021). Some features of hardiness in patients with depressive disorders. American Journal of Fundamental, Applied & Experimental Research, 22(3), 64-68. Retrieved from